After the catastrophic industrial accident in the Italian town of Seveso in1976, the EU adopted the Seveso Directive on the prevention such accidents in industrial establishments. The Directive has been amended several times in consideration of the lessons derived from big industrial accidents.
“Major Industrial Accident” means an occurrence such as a major emission, fire, or explosion resulting from uncontrolled developments in the course of the operation of any establishment, and leading to serious danger to human health and/or the environment, immediate or delayed, inside or outside the establishment, and involving one or more dangerous substances.
Directive 96/82/EC (Seveso-II Directive) on “The Control of Major Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous Substances” was published on December 9, 1996.
The harmonized version of Seveso-II Directive, “Directive on the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents and Mitigation of Impacts”, was prepared by a commission formed by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, and was published in the Official Gazette, dated December 30, 2013, duplicate no. 28867.
The Seveso Notification System (SEVESO BEKRA Notification) placed under the Environment Information System, the software portal of the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, is the electronic system where the establishments that store, produce, use or dispose the Dangerous Chemicals stated in the annex of the Directive on the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents and Mitigation of Impacts, notify the Ministry about the hazardous substances present and their amount. This notification, required by the Directive, is called the Seveso Notification.
Based on the Seveso Notification, the establishments are classified as “Upper-Tier”, “Lower-Tier” or “Out of Scope”.
General Obligations of the Operator;
– Notifications (BEKRA)
– Identification of Accident Hazards
– Quantitative Risk Assessment
– Determination and Implementation of Risk Control Measures
– Determination of the Highest Possible Prevention Level
– Determination of the Domino Effect
– Preparation of a Major Accident Prevention Policy
– Establishment of a Safety Management System
– Writing the Safety Report
– Developing the Emergency Plans
– Providing information to the public
- The Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and/or the Ministry of Labor and Social Security shut down the establishment or the facility or stop the work of the relevant departments in case the measures taken by the operator to prevent major accidents and reduce damages are found to be insufficient.
- The Ministry of Environment and Urbanization and/or the Ministry of Labor and Social Security shut down the establishment or the facility or stop the work of the relevant departments in case the operator does not submit the safety report and the internal emergency plan on time.
- The operator will be notified of the decision to close or stop the work, together with the reasons and the measures to be taken.
- In other cases, the relevant provisions of the Environmental Law No. 2872 and the Labor Law No. 4857 are applied.
“Lower-tier establishment” means an establishment where dangerous substances are present in quantities equal to or in excess of the quantities listed in Column 2 of Part 1 or in Column 2 of Part 2 of Annex I, but less than the quantities listed in Column 3 of the Directive on the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents and Mitigation of Impacts. These establishments are obliged to prepare a MAPP (Major-Accident Prevention Policy – BEKÖP/BKÖP).
“Upper-tier establishment” means an establishment where dangerous substances are present in quantities equal to or in excess of the quantities listed in Column 3 of Part 1 or in Column 3 of Part 2 of Annex I of the Directive on the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents and Mitigation of Impacts. As a requirement of the Directive, these establishments are obliged to prepare a Safety Report.
The establishments must submit their notifications on the Bekra Notification page prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization. In accordance with Annex-1 of the Directive on the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents and Mitigation of Impacts, the operator must register each chemical substance using the summing up rule.
Safety Management System: The Safety Management System is one of the most important elements in the Seveso II directive and covers the following sections:
Organization and Personnel: The roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the management of major hazards at all levels in the organisation, and the required trainings for all personnel.
Identification and Evaluation of Major Accidents: Adoption and implementation of procedures for identifying major hazards arising from any reason and the assessment of their likelihood and severity;
Operational Control: Preparation and adoption of procedures and instructions for safe operation including maintenance of plant, processes and equipment, and for temporary stoppages.
Management of Change: Adoption of procedures for planning modifications of for the design of new installations.
Planning for Emergencies: Adoption and implementation of procedures to identify foreseeable emergencies by systematic analysis, to prepare, test and review emergency plans and to provide specific training for the staff concerned.
Monitoring Performance: Preparation of the “Major Accident Prevention Policy” and compliance with the objectives set there. Building of mechanisms for investigation and taking corrective action in case of non-compliance.
Audits and Reviews: Adoption and implementation of procedures for the periodic systematic assessment of the systems.